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PAINT AND DECORATE

A site devoted to Painting and Decorating Techniques

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SPECIALIST DECORATOR

Hand painted signs, furniture and murals.

 

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How to create decorative techniques:-

Ragging

Roses & Castles

Sponge Stipple

Graining

Marbling

Murals and Hand Painted Signs

Answers to Your Questions:-

Russ

Keith

Plector

Robert

Nobby

Gill

Natasha

Sharon

N.Watts

Ian

Noel

Tara

Students Work:-

3D Stencils

Fiona

Shona

Gary(again)

Gary

Ged's Marble

Dave

Keith, Andy & Steve

ASSIGNMENTS

 

 

 

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ANSWERS TO YOUR QUESTIONS

 

from

 

Keith-Marbling    Plector-Just Funny    Robert-Colour Washing    Russ-Puttying, Paperhanging & Others    Nobby-Acrylic Marbling    Gill-Terebine, Whiting    Natasha-Lime Wash    Sharon-NVQ Questions    N.Watts-Mural Painting    Ian-Painting Gyproc Coving    Noel-Turpentine    Tara-Scumble

 

 

PAINT AND DEC DICTIONARY

 

A dictionary needs no introduction, it is, in its basic form, a list of words and their meaning.

What follows is a list of words all to do with the craft of Painting, Interior Decorating and Design and an attempt at the meaning of the word or phrase.

It is designed to be an ongoing exercise so if you would like to send in a word or phrase to me through the reply page I will publish its meaning.

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 

 

A..........

 

Abrade and Abrasive.  

Abrade is what you do when you rub down a surface prior to painting. Abrasive is the material you use to do the rubbing down with. Sandpaper is the first material to come to mind, but there are many more known to the craft.

 

Absorbency

Some materials will soak up moisture/water more than others. These materials are said to have a high absorbency level.

 

Acetate Sheet

Transparent sheet used to make stencils. Being transparent makes it easer to line up the stencil.

 

Achromatic

Free from colour. An achromatic colour scheme will be one without red, yellow or blue but with black and white and all the many subtle grays in between.

 

Acrylic Paint.

Water based paint used mostly on interior woodwork. Acrylic primer/undercoat and eggshell/sheen finishers are used increasingly on interior woodwork replacing solvent based paint. Tubes of acrylic colours are perfect for mural painting.

Acrylic is a synthetic resin.

 

Advancing Colour.

The Yellow, Red and Orange range of colours. Also the warn colours that appear closer to the eye.

 

Aluminium Leaf.

Thin metal foil used by the specialist decorator in a similar way as gold and silver leaf but a lot less expensive.

 

Analogous Colours.

Colours next to each other on the colour circle such as Orange and Yellow, Blue and Green and Purple and Red.

 

 

B..........

 

Badger Softener.

A brush used to soften painted effects in graining and marbling. The badger hair tips are finer than hogs hair. Some brush manufacturers say the badgers are shaved and are not killed but I don't know, if any one does, tell me on my Reply Page.

 

Binder.

An adhesive material which binds together the particles of pigment in any kind of paint.

 

Bird's Eye maple.

A light coloured wood with a subtle, mottled background. The 'birds eye's' are the small knots on the surface together with a fine grain line, sometimes created with a crayon by the specialist decorator.

 

Bleeding.

When the colour etc. of the underlying surface material penetrates the new paint applied on top and discolours it.

 

Blooming/Blushing.

A surface defect caused when the coating is in the curing phase and comes into contact with moisture resulting in a white bloom especially epoxy paints. (sent in by Alan Thompson - thank you)

 

 

C..........

 

Ceiling Bed.

The flat part of the ceiling. Not the cornice, the bit around the edge onto the wall or the ornamental rose in the middle or any mouldings planted on the ceiling just the flat bit.

 

Chalking.

A surface phenomenon, due to the exposure of the coating to the actinic rays of the sun (UV) disintegration of the binder resulting in a dull faded chalky surface. (sent in by Alan Thompson - thanks)

 

Cissing.

When water is splashed onto a waxed surface it goes into globules, this is cissing. When paint is applied to a surface that has not been prepared correctly i.e. cleaned of surface grease etc. the paint will ciss.

 

 

D..........

 

Dado.

The part of the wall between the skirting and the dado rail.

 

Dado Rail.

The moulding attached to a wall set between the dado and the wall filling, or the part of the wall up to the ceiling. Also known as the chair rail as it was set at a height to stop the backs of chairs from hitting and damaging the wall.

 

Dipper. 

A small pot to hold paint being used in Decorative Paint Finishes such as graining and marbling, sometimes attached to a palette board.

 

Discord.

A term used to describe the presentation of a colour scheme where the natural tonal order is reversed. The yellow becomes the darker and the blue is the lightest with a variation of the rest.

 

Dragging.

A broken colour effect where a glaze is applied over a hard dry eggshell or sheen base colour. The glaze is then manipulated by dragging a dry bush, of almost any description, through the wet glaze to produce a straight grain effect.

 

Driers.

A compound when added to an oil paint will make it absorb oxygen quickly therefore making the paint dry quicker. 

 

 

E..........

 

Earth Colours.

The name given to the pigments mined from the ground or the earth. Pigments such as Raw and Burnt Sienna, Raw and Burnt Umber, Ochre and Red Oxide.

 

Efflorescence.

Good word this isn't it? Have you ever seen that white powder on the outside brickwork of new buildings, that is efflorescence. In that situation it causers no harm. The powder can appear on the inside plaster work as well. It is the alkaline salts present in all wet building materials - plaster, cement, mortar etc. and can effect the interior decoration of buildings.

 

 

F..........

 

Flashing.

When eggshell/sheen/satin or undercoat is applied and it is brushed out, over brushed too many times it will create shiny streaks of paint and will mar the surface.

 

Flocculation.

To form lumpy or fluffy masses. In the Painting and Decorating industry it occurs when too much thinner is added to a paint and the pigment separates into lumps. The paint dries on the surface with a feel like flock wallpaper.

 

 

G..........

 

Gilp.

A mixture of one part raw linseed oil, two parts pure turpentine or white spirit or turps substitute and about 10% to 20% of the oil content terebine dryers. The gilp is mixed into tube oil colours when creating marble and wood grain effects.

 

Graining.

When paint in the form of glazes in oil or water colour are manipulated on a prepared surface to imitate real wood.

 

Grinning.

Where to little paint has been applied to a surface and the last coat is 'Grinning through'. (sent in by Alan Merritt - thanks mate)

 

 

H..........

 

Harmony.

Colours in a colour scheme are said to be in harmony if they are partly made up of the same primary colour. There are only three primary colours, red, yellow and blue so if yellow and orange where used then that colour scheme would be in harmony, as orange is made from red and yellow.

 

 

I..........

 

Indian Red.

A pigment used in the make up of paint. In tube form it is used in the production of imitation Sienna marble.  Mixed with Prussian Blue it producers the deep violet colour of the veining.

 

 

J..........

 

Japan Gold Size.

A quick drying oil based varnish used as an adhesive for gold leaf.

 

 

K..........

 

Key.

To rub down a surface prior to painting is to give it a key. Rubbing down puts lots of scratches on a surface and allows the following paint to grip and adhere. 

 

 

L..........

 

Lapis Lazuli.

Semi-precious gemstone ultramarine blue in colour with specks of fools gold. It is imitated by the specialist decorator using a pale blue or white base on which ultramarine blue and small amounts of black are manipulated to produce a cloud effect. Gold bronze powder or small flakes of gold leaf are then applied in small areas.

 

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M..........

 

Malachite.

A bright green mineral found in the form of small pieces of rock. It is imitated by the specialist decorator using a pale bluish-green base and viridian oil colour. The oil colour is manipulated using small pieces of card with edges roughly cut or torn.

 

 

N..........

 

Negative Stencil.

A stencil with the background cut out and the design is formed from the ties.

 

Neutral Colour.

A colour without any colour in it. Grey without red, yellow or blue or any mix of those three primary colours. Black and white only mixed together are neutral colours.

 

 

O..........

 

Oxidation.

Most oil paint contains linseed oil. The drying of linseed oil takes place when it is exposed to the air.

To be more precise it is when it is exposed to the oxygen in the air. When linseed oil and oxygen come together i.e. when one dips a paint brush into a pot of paint and brushes it on their front door, a chemical action takes place known as oxidation. The linseed oil and oxygen change, irreversibly, to form a new substance known as linoxyn.

 

 

P..........

 

Palette board.

A piece of board - 6mm ply, hardboard or similar shaped like a square table tennis bat to mix small quantities of paint when marbling or creating painted effects.

 

Pigment.

Is a discrete particulate solid used to impart specific protective or decorative qualities to the coating. (sent in by Alan Thompson - thanks Alan)

 

Propylene Glycol.

A liquid alcohol used especially as a solvent in antifreeze and in the food, plastic and perfume industries. It is also used in propriety brands of water based acrylic scumbles.

 

 

Q..........

 

Quartered Oak.

The pattern of grain produced when a log of oak timber is cut lengthways along its radius - from the center to the bark. When quartered oak is polished light dapples or markings can be seen. These marking are completely separate from the overall flow of the grain and make the polished wood more intriguing and interesting to look at.

 

 

R..........

 

Rag rolling.

A broken colour effect. After applying an eggshell base coat (colour of choice) and allowing to dry completely a glaze, normally slightly darker, is mixed and applied over. The glaze is then stippled to obliterate brush marks. A lint free cotton rag is used. The rag lightly crumpled in the hand is rolled over the surface using the finger tips to press the rag into the glaze creating a crust velvet effect.

 

 

S..........

 

Scagliola. (pronounced skalyola)

Highly polished plasterwork produced to imitate marble. Made from gypsum or alabaster with added pigments and animal glue shaped, molded and then polished to take on the look of marble. It is now prized in its own right and used in new construction.

 

Scumble.

Scumble can be oil or water based. On its own it has a creamy or milky appearance and dries almost as clear as varnish. When tubes of oil colour or stains of water colour are added it is used as a glaze. Oil scumble is a mixture of raw linseed oil, bees wax, turps and small amount of driers. Water scumble is a mixture of acrylic lacquers and propylene glycol a synthetic glycerine or make your own with powdered pigment, fullers earth and a little glycerine. Of cause you can buy your scumble ready made and just add colour.

 

Secondary Colour.

Colour produced when mixing two primary colours such as red and yellow which will make orange.

 

Stale Beer.

Used when mixing a graining colour for oak, pine etc. The stale beer (stale because it is not frothy or lively) acts as a binder for the powdered pigment it is mixed with. 

 

 

T..........

 

Tack Rag.

Tack rag or tacky rag is used to pick up fine particles of dust from a surface to be painted just prior to applying, normally, the final or gloss coat. It is usually made from muslin soaked in linseed oil.

 

Terebine.

A liquid oil paint dryer. Added to a gilp mixture (one part raw linseed oil and two parts turpentine or turps substitute) to assist in its drying. Gilp is mixed with tube oil colour when creating marble and wood grain effects.

 

Tertiary Colour.

A colour produced from mixing two secondary colours, say green and orange which will make khaki.

 

Toluene.

A colourless liquid which is obtained from coal tar and is used as a solvent in some paint spray materials (smells like pear drops).

 

Translucent.

A term used to describe a material which allows light to pass through it but is not transparent.

 

 

U..........

 

Ultramarine Blue.

A brilliant deep blue pigment originally made from lapis lazuli but now produced from powdered fired clay, sodium carbonate, sulphur and resin.

 

 

V..........

 

Vert de Mer.

Meaning "Green of the Sea". Vert de Mer is a black, green and white marble from Italy and is imitated using a goose feather.

 

 

W..........

 

White Spirit.

Also known as turps substitute and is a solvent produced from the distillation of crude petroleum.

 

 

X..........

 

Xylol.

A solvent produced from the distillation of coal tar. Because of its fast evaporation rate is used in spray painting.

 

 

Y..........

 

Yellowing.

The discolouration of paint through ageing most noticeable in white oil paint.

 

 

Z..........

 

Zinc Chromate Primer.

A metal primer with excellent rust inhibitive properties.

 

 

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